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英文论文写作攻略

论文写作开头难?玩命推荐这份最全英文论文写作攻略~

 

医学论文(medical papers)是整理和发表医学研究成果的一种特殊文本的总称,就其内容和文体特点而言可分为以下几种:医学科研论文(scientific papers);调查报告(survey);综述(review);学位论文(theses)。(文末有全套写作学习视频)

国际生物学编辑委员会对医学科研论文的定义为:必须是首次公布的应提供足够的资料,使同行们能够进行:①评价所观察到的结果;②评价其推理过程;③重复实验。分为以下2种:临床研究(clinical study);基础研究或实验研究(experimental study)。

在高校医学院和医学科研机构的学术研究和对外交流中,医学翻译和写作是必不可少的一个环节,而语言翻译工作者也经常会碰到论文翻译的需求,在这个论文翻译的旺季,医学论文翻译无疑是大头。

那么问题来了,要进行医学翻译,就必须对医学论文的框架有一定的了解。下面介绍两个英文论文的框架。

一、医学科研论文的格式综合版

根据医学杂志编辑国际委员会制定的《生物医学杂志投稿统一要求》一篇生物医学科研论文(以下简称“论文”)应包括以下12个部分:

1.标题(Title)

2.摘要(Abstract)

3.引言(Introduction)

4.材料与方法(Materials and Methods)

5.结果(Results)

6.讨论(Discussion)

7.致谢(Acknowledgements)

8.参考文献(References)

9.插图说明(Legends)

10.插图(Figures)

11.表格(Tables)

12.照片和说明(Plates and Explanations)

以上除7、9、10、11、12部分因实际情况不需要外,其他各部分是一篇论文必不可少的内容。

1、引言部分

总的要求:

说明研究的总体范围和目的。

具体要求:

A. 背景–说明所研究问题的目前总体情况或历史(statement of general area or history ofproblem);

B. 意义–说明研究的意义或必要性(statement of importance or need);

C.进展–说明有关该问题的先有发现、报告或研究(statement of previous findings,reports orstudies)。陈述这部分内容时一般要有引文(citations);

D. 目的–说明本研究的目的(statement of purpose of current study);

E. 范围–说明要研究问题的具体范围(statement of specific area of problem to bestudied)

2、材料与方法部分

总的要求:

结果的可重演性、方法的可*性以及前后的逻辑性。

具体要求:

A. 简要说明研究设计(study design/protocol),如:回顾(retrospective/review),前瞻(prospective),临床(clinical),动物(animal),实验(experimental),活体内(in vivo) 活体外(in vitro),原位(in situ) 随访(follow-up),对照(controlled),随机(random/randomized),双盲交*(double- blind crossover),人群(population/cohort/migrant),对比(comparative),流行病学(epidemiological) 等研究性质;

B. 详细说明研究对象(subject) 情况,包括研究人员(student),被研究的人(client) 和动物(animal) 的性别(***)、年龄(age),物种(species),品种(breed) 生理状态(physiological state);微生物则要说明其菌株(strain),血清型(serotype) 及其他区别特性(identity characteristics);

C. 随机分组分组方法(methods of any random assignment of subjects togroups) 和选择标准(criteria for admission to study groups);

D. 详细说明所用的药物(drug),激素(hormone),试剂(reagent) 和其他化学品(chemical) 的名称、商标(trademark)、生产厂家(manufacturer)及所在地(location)

E. 简要说明测定方法(method of measurement),包括名称,引文和偏差(variations);

F. 简要说明统计学分析方法(method of statistic analysis)

这部分的陈述程序一般为:研究设计→研究对象性质→处理/干预方法→测定/观察手段→统计分析。

除指示性说明外,如:“病人资料见表1”(Data of the patients are shown in Table 1) “材料与方法”和“结果”两部分一律用过去时表达。

3、结果部分

总的要求:

让研究的客观结果说话,不要添枝加叶。

具体要求:

A. 对所获结果进行概述(overview of the results);

B. 说明所获资料或数据的统计意义(statistical significance);

统计支持(statisticalsupport),包括图,表,照片等(凡用图表表示的内容不再用文字详述)。不要用模棱两可的词或短语表述结果,如:“Theresults tended to be greater than…”。

4、讨论部分

总的要求:

与先有研究相比,本研究有何意义。

具体要求:

A. 简要说明研究背景(background)

B. 简要介绍总的发现(general findings);

C. 介绍具体要点(introduction of points)

D. 与现有发现(若有)进行比较(comparison in the context of other studies)

E. 意义(suggested meaning)

F. 结论(conclusion)

G. 前瞻研究(future studies)

结论往往是论文中最长也是最难写的部分,主要原因是作者要对研究结果和发现进行分析、推断、演绎和推理,要求作者具有很强逻辑思维能力和英语文字组织能力。此外,这部分时态比较复杂,要分清实验过程和结果(过去时)与分析意见(确定:现在时;不确定或假设:过去时)的区别;他人研究结果(过去时或现在完成时)与本研究结果(过去时)的区别;普遍适用的结论(现在时)与只适用本研究的结论(过去时)的其别等。因此,对于however, may, might, could, would, possibly,probably, be likely to 等词(组)的使用以及we believe (think/consider) that, to ourknowledge, in our experience (practice) 等插入语的使用就显得格外重要。

5、致谢部分

总的要求:

致谢词和致谢方式必须征得受谢人或单位的同意。

6、参考文献

总的要求:

Referencestyles should be specific to eachjournal,既:根据各杂志的具体要求,因为各杂志对参考文献部分的编排顺序和格式不尽统一。

现将URMSBJ要求的20多种参考文献中最常见的5种格式列举如下:

1) Vega KJ,Pina I,Krevsky B.Heart transplantation is associated with anincreased risk for pancreatobiliary disease.Ann Intern Med 1996 Jun1;124(11):980-3. [标准杂志文章]

2) The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand.Clinical excisestress testing:Safety and performance guidelines.Med J Aust1996;164:282-4. [作者是个组织]

3) Cancer in South Africa[editorial].S Afr Med J 1984;84:15. [无作者名]

4) Shen HM,Zhang QF.Risk assessment of nickel cardiogenicity andoccupational lung cancer.Environ Health Perspect 1994;102 Suppl1:275-82.[某杂志增刊]

5) Browell DA,Lennard TW.Immunologic status of the cancer patient andthe effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses.Curr Opin GenSurg 1993;325-33 [无期无卷]

7、插图说明

总的要求:

插图说明要另页双行打印。当插图中有箭头(arrow)、符号(symbol)、数字(number)或字母(letter)时,要在这部分(不是在插图页上)对其方向、位置等作出非常明确的说明。

8、插图

总的要求:

Designyour figures for the appropriatereduction,即:插图要按杂志的版面大小比例进行压缩;不要把插图拍成照片。

9、表格

总的要求:

Atable should be a totally self-contained unit ofinformation,即:表格要作为一个独立的信息单位另页打印。表格要简明清楚,完整(标题、内容和脚注),即使只有一张表格也要标Table1。

二、医学科研论文的格式简明版

1、标题(title)

2、摘要(abstract)

3、引言(introduction)

4、材料和方法(materialsand methods)

5、结果(results)

6、讨论(discussion)

7、致谢(acknowledgement)

8、参考文献(references)

1、标题

1)要求

简明扼要(shortand concise):尽量控制在一行,但不是一个句子;不超过25个单词或120-140个字母;除DNA、RNA、CT等不用缩写。

A. 信息丰富(informative)

B. 便于索引(indexing)

C. 较长标题可采用副标题

2)标题写作中常用词组和表达方式

用…(方法/手段)对…进行研究/分析/观察/评价:

Study(analysis/observation/evaluation/assessment)of (on) …  by (using 方法/with工具)

A对B的作用

EffortofA on B

Protective effect of omeprazole onendothelin-induced gastric mucosal injury

 

A与B的关系

Correlation(relation/relationship)between A and B

Correlationof A with B and C

 

常用修饰词

positively/negatively/significantly/insignificantly

 

用…治疗…

Useof …in the treatment of …(病)in…(生物)

Useof omeprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the elderly

 

A是B

A as B

2、摘要

1)摘要分类

摘要是作者要给读者的精华,从内容上分两大类:

A. 指示性摘要

B. 资料性摘要

从结构分为三大类:

A. 非结构式摘要

B. 全结构式摘要

C. 半结构式摘要

2)非结构式摘要

缺点:段落不明,给编辑、审稿、阅读和计算机处理带来诸多不便

3)全结构式摘要

八要素摘要:目的,设计,地点,对象,处理,主要测定项目,结果,结论。

优点:观点更明确,信息量更大;差错更少;符合计算机数据库建立和使用要求。

缺点:烦琐、重复、篇幅过长

4)半结构式摘要

即为四要素摘要:

目的(objective/purpose/aim)

方法(methods)

结果(results)

结论(conclusion)

3、目的

目的是作者想要介绍的关键问题。

1)目的格式

单表目的

背景+目的

2)目的常用时态

背景:现在时(一般现在时、完成时和进行时)

目的:一般现在时/现在完成时,或一般过去时

举例1:

Toevaluate the effects on 24-hour intragastric pH levels of infusionswithomeprazole and H2 receptor antagonists in bleeding duodenal ulcerpatients.

举例2:

Therole of omeprazole in triple therapy and the impact of Helicobacterpyloriresistance on treatment outcome are not established. This studyinvestigatedthe role of omeprazole and influence of primary H. pyloriresistance oneradication and development of secondary resistance.

3)介绍目的常用句型

主要用动词不定式to表达

直接用“todo短语”表达

举例1:

Todetermine if use of omeprazole protects against the gastric mucosalinjury

Thepurpose/aim/objective/goal (of present study is) was to

举例2:

Theaim ofthis study was to determine the protective function ofomeprazole on gastricmucosal injury.

Thepresent study is /was designed/devised/intended to

举例3:

Thepresent study was designed to establish whether there might be agenetic pred is position to an altered pattern of anti-inflammatorycytokine produced inpatients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Thisstudy was performed/conducted/carried out/under taken to

举例4:

Anexperimental study was conducted using a canine mode to elucidate …

Weaimed/sought to/attempted to

举例5:

Wesought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosisamong individuals who work in certain industries occupations.

4)介绍目的常用动词

研究:study,investigate,examine, observe, explore

举例:

Ourobjective in this report is to examine the clinical feature,pathology and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer.

评价:evaluate,validate

举例:

Toevaluate sonography as a tool for initial diagnosis in emergency roompatientswith abdominal trauma.

确定:determine,decide,confirm, support, define, characterize

证实:prove,demonstrate,document, test, support, testify, verify

阐明、搞清:explain,elucidate,clarify, illustrate, delineate, find out, contribute to theknowledgeof

介绍:describe,present,report

建立:establish,develop,set out

寻找:searchfor,look for, seek, find

识别、区分:identify,differentiate,discriminate

优选:optimize

比较:compare

回顾:review

相关:correlateAwith B

4、方法部分

研究设计;

研究对象的特性;

干预或处理方法;

测定或观察方法。

1)研究对象的选择、来源及标准

纳入研究:wereentered into/enrolled in/selected (randomly)

举例:Atotal of 169 patients were included in the study, 83 of whomreceived……

排除或退出研究:wereexcluded from participation,withdrew from the study due to/because to

举例:……Patientswith significant aortic valvular diseases were excluded.

2)研究对象的分组

……were divided into/classified/grouped into

……weredivided randomly/randomized into

……weredivided equally into

举例:Patientswere divided into three groups: Group 1…… Patients (n = 539) witha history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening testresult were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mgomeprazole, ……

3)年龄

某一年龄

举例:A50-year-old patient. Patients (age 26±3 years).

在某年龄范围内及平均年龄

举例:Patientsrange in age from …to…, with a mean of (50 years).

在某一年龄以上或以下

举例:Patientsmore than 50 years. Patients under/less than 50 years.

4)性别、时间

性别

twelve patients (7 male and 5 female )

The male-to-female ratio was 1:4

时间

Body weight was measured weekly, and liver biopsy was obtained at 4,8 and 12 weeks.……

5)诊断与治疗

诊断

be diagnosed as having …

be diagnosed as …by …/with …

besuspected as …

治疗

be treated with…(alone or in combination with …)

be treated on outpatient/inpatient basis

举例:Patients(n= 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pyloriscreening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC groupreceived 20 mg omeprazole, …

举例:50patients with active bleeding duodenal ulcer were randomly assignedto receiveone of the four treatment regimens. …

5、结果部分

是文章结论的根据,应记录真实的科研数据,除指示性说明外,一般用过去时表示。

常用句型

结果表明

Theresults showed / demonstrated / revealed /documented /indicated/suggested…that…;

Itwas found that…

 

举例:Theresults showed that high thigh cuff Doppler technique was 79 percentsensitive, 56 percent specific and 63 percent accurate.

与…有关

Awas related / correlated /associated with B. There was a relationship/correlation between A and B. There was a relation of A with B and C

 

举例:Insulin sensitivity index was negatively with blood velocity (r=0.530,P<0.05), bodymass index (r=o.563, P<0.01) and baselineinsulinemia (r=0.489, P<0.05)

增加或减少

表示数值增加的动词:increase,rise,elevate

表示数值增加的名词:increase,increment,elevation

表示数值减少的动词:decrease,reduce,fall, drop, decline, lower

表示数值减少的名词:decrease,decrement,reduction, fall, drop, decline, lowering

从…增加到…,平均增加…:increasefrom…to …, with a mean/average (increase) of …

从…增加到…,总的增加…:increasefrom…to …, with an overall increase of …

增加了10%:increaseby(10%)

倍数比较

增加或减少3倍:increaseby3 fold (times); a 3-fold increase

A是B的3倍:Ais 3 fold (times) as…as B. A is 3 fold (times) B

结果的统计学意义

明显不同(significantdifference)

很明显不同(very/highlysignificant difference)

区别不明显(insignificantdifference)

无区别(nonsignificantdifference/no difference)

统计学意义常用句型

Therewas/is significant difference in…between A and B

Thedifference in …between A and B was/is significant

Awas/is significant difference from B in …

Nosignificant difference was found / observed / noted in …between Aand B

“in”表示区分的性质或内容

举例1:Therewere no significant difference between treatment groups in symptoms  andlung function (P>0.05).

举例2:Significantdifference were not noted in the level of HDL cholesterol, and LDLpeakparticle diameter before and after treatment.

6、结论部分

是作者发表观点和见解,给读者的精髓部分归纳性说明研究结果或发现结论性说明结果的可能原因、机理或意义前瞻性说明未解决的问题。

1)结论部分时态

过去时

a. 涉及本研究的内容

b. 涉及他人研究过程的内容

c. 作者认为只适用于本研究环境和条件的结论

现在时

a. 指示性说明

b. 普遍接受的思想、理论或结论

c. 作者认为本研究结论具有普遍意义

d. 前瞻性说明

举例:Ourfindings indicate that hepatitis C is a progressive disease[指示性说明-现在时],butonlya few died during the average 20.4 years after the initiation ofinjectiondrug use [本试验过程中发生的事-过去时].Antiviraltreatment to eradicate the virus and halt the progression ofdiseasesis indicated in this group of patients [作者认为具有普遍意义的结论-现在时].

2)结论部分常用句型

结果提示…

Theseresults suggest that…

举例:Thesedata confirm the presence of at least two major HCV genotypes inNigeria.

结果支持或反对某种观点

Theseresults support the idea that…

Theseresults fail to support the idea that…

举例:Theseresults do not support the idea that treatment to lower cholesterolconcentration cause mood disturbance.

表示观点的确定或不确定性

Thereis no evidence that…

Itis likely/unlikely that …

举例:Thereis no evidence that NIDDM produce any change in bone metabolism ormass.

具有…意义

Beof great (some/little/no) clinical significance in…to …

举例:Thedetection of p53 gene is of great clinical significance in tumordiagnosis.

前瞻性说明

…remaintobe further studied;

Itis remains to be proved that …

举例:However,the relation of insulin resistance to hypertension remains to befurtherstudied.

插入语

Thisis the first case of pancreas divisum.

举例:Thisis the first case, to our knowledge, of pancreas divisum.

 

摘自:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/auDJLRNNfmLbQc43SVffTg

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